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Table 1 Milestone innovations of imaging techniques

From: Smart imaging to empower brain-wide neuroscience at single-cell levels

Techniques Features Achievements
CLSM [73] Pin-hole structure to reject out-of-focus light Improved axial resolution for optical sectioning
SDCM [74, 75] Hundreds of pinholes arranged in spirals on an opaque disk that rotates at high speeds Vastly speeds up image acquisition and reduce photon damage
2P microscopes [76] Intense excitation by pulsed lasers, leading to absorption of two or three photons at once Improved light collection efficiency, intrinsic confocal effect, and penetration depth
LSFM [77, 78] Sheet-shaped excitation beam to selectively excite only the plane of interest Faster imaging procedure, reduced photon damage
Multi-view LSFM [79, 80] Simultaneously record multiple views of the specimen Maximizes the sample coverage
LFM [81, 82] A micro-lens array in place of the camera Capture all voxels in a volumetric image instantaneously
  1. CLSM confocal laser scanning microscope, SDCM spinning disk confocal microscopy, 2P two-photon, LSFM light-sheet fluorescence microscopy, LFM light-field microscopy