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Table 1 Neuroimaging studies during midazolam-induced sedation

From: Neuropsychopharmacological effects of midazolam on the human brain

First author and year Modality Sample size Main findings
Liang et al. 2018 [38] ASL n = 12 (20–30 years old) Decreased CBF in the bilateral medial thalamus and precuneus/PCC
Veselis et al. 1997 [41] PET n = 14 (28.1 ± 5.8 year) Decreased rCBF in the cingulate gyrus, insula, multiple areas in the prefrontal cortex, the thalamus, and parietal and temporal association areas
Frölich et al. 2017 [49] fMRI n = 11 (19–40 years old) Reduction of brain activation in the auditory cortex
Gemma et al. 2009 [51] fMRI n = 5 (4,5–6 years old) Subjects exhibiting activation in the primary auditory cortex
Tian et al. 2010 [53] fMRI n = 12 (22–38 years old) Preserved activation in the auditory cortex by auditory stimulus
Wise et al. 2007 [61] fMRI n = 8 (25 ± 5 year) Reduced activity in the ACC, the insular cortex
Liang et al. 2015 [66] fMRI n = 14 (24 ± 3.2 year) Impaired higher-order cognitive functions prior to lower-level sensory responses
Greicius et al. 2008 [67] fMRI n = 9 (22–27 years old) Reduced functional connectivity in the posterior cingulate cortex
Forsyth et al. 2020 [68] fMRI n = 30 (27.3 ± 6.2 year) Increased connectivity in sensory networks (SMN, VN), and decreased connectivity in some of the higher cognitive networks (rFPN, pDMN)
Adhikari et al. 2020 [78] fMRI n = 30 (27.3 ± 6.2 year) Reduced connectivity in the DMN
  1. ASL arterial spin labeling, CBF cerebral blood flow, PCC posterior cingulate cortex, PET positron emission tomography, rCBF regional cerebral blood flow, fMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging, ACC anterior cingulate cortex, SMN sensorimotor network, VN visual network, FPN frontoparietal network, DMN default mode network
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